Full text: Problems in eugenics

C 3714 Exhibit C 37—38. 
Gradual extinction of the Mannheim families in the 19th Century. 
Only extinction by death in Mannheim and in the male line are 
taken into account. Families which have disappeared through 
emigration have been excluded. Branches of families which have 
become extinct at Mannheim may be flourishing elsewhere. Of 3,081 
families, 2,538 have become extinct by death at Mannheim itself, 
543 survive. The spiral curve shows the number of survivors in any 
year as so many per thousand of the original number. 
Old Mannheim Families. 
Gradual extinction of Old Mannheim Families during 
the 19th century. 
Figure C 37. 
C 38 Average number of children in each generation ; the families 
being grouped according to the number of generations they attained. 
The families of 1807 (original families) and their decendants wTere classed 
into five groups, according to the number of generations they attained 
in Mannheim. For each group is calculated the average number of 
children within one generation—for each separate family as well as for 
the entire family (i.e., the total of all the separate families which have 
sprung from the same “original family”). For instance: “Original 
families ” which have lasted into the third generation, 464 ; the separate 
families show in the first generation, 464 families, 2,377 children; in the 
second generation, 718 families, with 3,645 children; in the third genera­ 
tion, 754 families, with 2,454 children. Accordingly, the total 
families show average numbers 5.1, 7.9, 5.3; the separate families, 
5.x, 5.1, 3.3. All these averages are minimum figures, because it 
was impossible to eliminate the moderate number of couples who 
emigrated before the number of their offspring was completed.

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