Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

A. Marro.Biology and Eugenics.133 
mothers, 26% ; 59% from the mothers of middle age ; the descendants of 
aged mothers were found, on the contrary, in small proportion, 14%. In 
the degenerate forms, on the contrary, the descendants of a young mother 
are not numerous, 60% ; somewhat numerous those of the mothers of middle 
age, 51%; and a notable proportion the children of aged mothers, 40%. In 
cases of moral insanity there were no descendants of young mothers, and 
the aged mothers were more numerous than those of middle age. Finally, 
amongst the paralytics we find 33% of old mothers and 55% of mothers of 
middle age. Amongst the scholars whom I have examined the reports 
regarding their conduct relative to the age of their mothers will be presented 
according to the following little table :— 
Table VII. 
Conduct at School of Pupils in Relation to Age of the Mothers. 
Categories.Good.Medium.Bad. 
Age of the mother: to 21 years ...53'9%28-3%177% 
>>„ from 22 to 36 years48-3%33’2%i8'4% 
J)„ from 37 and over41-3%4i-3%17-2% 
The gentleness of character proper to women, especially in youth, gives 
the maximum proportion of good conducts among children born of the 
youngest mothers, this quality decreasing in proportion as we find mothers 
advancing in age, although in the bad conducts column one hardly notices 
any difference in the proportions depending on the different ages of the 
mothers. However, as regards 59 scholars amongst whom, as I have said 
in speaking of the age of the fathers, one has noted positively bad moral 
qualities, a tendency to quarrels, to lying, one has observed in this class a 
different proportion which increases from the youngest to the oldest; that 
is to say, in the proportion of 4'4% among the children of young mothers, 
of 6’4% amongst those born of mothers of middle age and of 9'i% amongst 
children borne by women at the period of decline. If we reflect besides that 
we have proportionately exaggerated the extension of the middle class to the 
loss of the last the difference must appear still greater in attributing to this 
last a greater proportion of bad characters. 
If we take account of the results obtained by the examinations made 
upon the scholars, the influence of the youth of the mother should have a 
different effect upon the moral character of the children from that of the 
father, which would reveal itself by a greater number of good qualities, 
whilst the increase in age of the mother confers on the offspring all these 
worst qualities. 
As regards intelligence, the proportions show themselves as follows :—
        

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