Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

Section III.A. Niceforo. 
fashion ease and a high social position, while others represent misery, 
poverty, and a lower social elevation. 
Having formed these groups we can compare the characters of men of 
the poorer classes with the characters of men of the leisured classes—and 
the characters of men of an inferior class with those of men of a superior 
class. But, in a series of researches and personal investigations—very modest 
but persevering—I took especial care to compare economic groups, 
social and professional, as different as possible from one another; and I 
believe one can thus demonstrate the importance of the -physical and mental 
differences separating men belonging to different social and economic classes. 
Suppose, for example, we have to compare two groups of men 
differing from each other by belongnig to two different profes­ 
sional or economic classes, such as feasants and students—or leisured 
■persons with poor persons. I proposed to determine, for each of 
the two groups to be compared, first the physical and physiological 
characters (as, the size, the weight, the circumference of the thorax, the 
strength measured by the dynamometer, the capacity of the skull without 
forgetting the other cranial characters, the epoch of puberty, the rapidity 
of growth, etc.). Next, I endeavoured to measure, in the two groups to 
be compared, the psycliophysiological characters expressible in figures, such 
as, the different varieties of sensibility (which can be discovered by the aid 
of the instruments of precision of experimental psychology) and the various 
forms of the operation of the mentality that can be made evident through 
the aid of mental tests. 
Thirdly, I proceeded to the measurement of the demographic 
characters belonging to each group, such as the birth rate, the mortality, 
the virility, the morbidity, the age of marriage, the attraction of similars, 
the rate of movement from place to place. 
There remained for me finally to fix the causes which determine—amongst 
groups so different from the point of view of profession or leisure—the 
formation or persistance of proved characters.* 
Before summing up the results obtained, may I be permitted to say a few 
words on the subject of the method. 
* We allow ourselves to refer the reader to our works on this subject: Les 
Classes Pauvres, one vol., Paris, Giard and Briére, publishers, 1905 ; Forza e 
Ricchezza, one vol., Turin, Bocca, publisher; and Barcellona, Henrich, publisher, 
1906; Ricerche sui Contadini, one vol., Sandron, publisher, Milan, Palermo, 1907; 
Anthropologie der Nichtbesitzenden Klassen, one vol., Maas and Suchtelen, pub­ 
lishers, Leipiz and Amsterdam, 1910 ; Anthropologia delle classi povere, Milan, 1910, 
Vallardi, publisher, and the memoirs : Contribution à l'étude des correlations entre 
le bien-être économique et quelques faits de la vie démographique, etc., in the 
Journal of the Statistic Society of Paris, August, 19T1, and A propos de quelques 
Comparaisons entre les mensurations obtenues sur les sujets appartenant à des classes 
sociales différentes, in Bull, de la Société d’ Anthropologie de Paris, 1911, etc.
        

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