Full text: Problems in eugenics

212Section III.M. L. March. 
were employers, employés, fishermen, or soldiers, whereas the majority of the 
former were workmen and the like. In both cases the man who stops 
working when about 60 years old has fewer children than he who goes on. 
When the latter, in his turn, stops when 70 years old, his relatively large 
number of children brings up the average. 
We will sum up these first indications by comparing the average number 
of children for every 100 married men of the age group in which this number 
reaches its highest for those classes which have been enumerated :— 
Fishermen and sailors in the merchant 
service ... ... ... ... 486 (3,000 60-64 years 
Workmen ... ... ... ... 404 
Employers ... ... ... ... 360 
(3,000 60-64 
(140,000 ,, 
(360,000 ,, 
(280,000 above65old) „) „) 
inmates, prisoners, vaga-353 (5>°°° 7° years old and older) 
means or without332 310(145,000 ,, ,, ,, ) 
(5,000 more than 70 years old) 
Workhouse bonds 
Men of private 
Employés We will now consider the same classes, arranged not according to the 
age of the head of the family, but according to the duration of the marriage. 
We obtain in the largest classes, for marriages which have lasted 25 years 
and more, the following average numbers : Workmen, 409 ; employers, 360 ; 
men of private means or without profession, 307. 
We are, therefore, justified in stating that, after taking into account the 
effects of age and length of married life, workmen show greater fecundity 
than employers, and that employers who maintain their occupation are more 
prolific than persons living entirely on private means. 
But employers, like workmen and employés, differ in respect to their 
occupations ; it is thus possible that much of the fecundity shown by the 
older members among the first-named arises from the fact that they are 
agriculturalists. Let us, therefore, make a preliminary classification by 
distinguishing agriculture, manufactures (here including the transport 
trades), commerce, and the liberal professions. For every xoo employers 
married for more than 25 years we get :— 
Married life extending for more than 25 years. 
All ages. 60-70 years. 
Number. Children born Children born 
per 100 families, per 100 families. 
560.000 ... 371 ... 370 
225.000 ... 382 ... 385 
120.000 20,000 
Manufactures ... 
Liberal professions340 303347 3°5 Totals925,00037°371

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