Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

M. L. March. Sociology and Eugenics.213 
This shows that there are considerable differences in productivity between 
one class and another, and it is remarkable that manufacturers should 
be more prolific than agriculturalists. Commercial employers and, in a more 
marked degree, professional men are sensibly less prolific. 
The relative position of agricultural employers and manufacturers is 
altered if one considers marriages which have lasted less than 25 years ; 
marriages of less than 5 years’ duration, of 5-14 years, of 15-25 years are 
more productive among the former class than among the latter. All this 
seems as if farmers, after having had more rapidly than merchants the 
number of children decided on, stopped having them sooner. 
By considering the different occupations in detail, one can differentiate 
between groups of industries of similar nature. The number of children 
per 100 married men is more than 390 among mine and quarry owners, 
among flour millers, in the textile trades, the building trades, and the 
transport trades, while it sinks to 350 and less in the provision trades and 
book trades, and among goldsmiths and jewellers. This would mean that 
in the large industries the employers have more children than in the small. 
In commerce the average number of children per 100 families is highest 
among butchers ; it is lowest among bankers and financiers, who form a 
sort of step between industry and commerce 011 the one hand and the liberal 
professions on the other. 
Thus among employers fecundity seems, to a certain extent, to be con­ 
nected with the particular characteristics of the occupation, but these are 
very complex. On the one hand the intellectuality of the profession, if one 
may use this expression, induces a low productiveness, since the number 
of children is low in the liberal professions, in the book trades and in finan­ 
cial undertakings, whereas occupations like that of the butcher conduce to a 
relatively high productiveness; on the other hand, the heads of large indus­ 
tries seem to be more prolific than small industrial employers or tradesmen. 
One can apparently distinguish two factors acting in a quasi independent 
manner; on the one hand there is the intellectual nature of the profession, 
which leads to late marriages and creates for reasons which need not be 
further entered into here an environment unfavourable to fecundity ; on the 
other hand there is anxiety for the future of the children. In large concerns 
the children can easily find employment to suit them, and can obtain without 
difficulty positions as high as those of their parents, either in the country or 
out of it. In small concerns, on the contrary, except in particular cases like 
that of the butcher, where the employment of the labour of different members 
of the family is almost a condition of success, the father cannot regard with­ 
out anxiety the future of his children. 
Certain of these causes can be found operating also among employés 
and workmen. Among employés the most productive are journeymen 
butchers, and next come superintendents and foremen, whose productiveness 
approximates to that of the workmen. The number of children is smallest
        

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