Full text: Problems in eugenics

M. L. March. Sociology and Eugenics.215 
vince like le Nord, in which there are large industries and fairly large 
farms, here productiveness is usually high; whereas in a grass country like 
le Calvados births are more restricted, and small or medium-sized holdings 
are the rule. 
We will calculate the productiveness of families of which the head is 
aged 60-70 years, and has been married for more than 25 years. In both 
provinces fishermen and sailors are the most productive, but in le Nord 
they have 747 children per 100 families, against 559 only in le Calvados. 
In the former hospital inmates and prisoners have almost six children per 
family, more than workmen, although these also have almost six; in the 
latter the number of families belonging to the first-named class are too few 
to take count of their productiveness, but it is less than that of the workmen. 
In both provinces persons with private means or without profession have 
fewer children than workmen or employers ; in both employés are the least 
productive class. 
In le Calvados it is difficult to take the divisions any further without intro­ 
ducing effects of age and length of marriage. We will only point out that 
some of the general observations, made for the whole of France, are con­ 
firmed. Thus in both provinces, superintendents and foremen, classed 
among employés, have a productiveness intermediate between that of em­ 
ployers and that of employés. If one represents by the number 100 the 
productiveness of each occupational class in le Nord, one finds that the cor­ 
responding values for Calvados are as follows (only classes containing more 
than 100 families are taken into consideration) :— 
Private means, etc. ...... 52Employés in the public services77 
F armers••• 54Agricultural labourers and 
Industrial employers... 63domestics63 
Commercial employers••• 54Workmen employed in the 
Railway employés... 90building trades69 
Unskilled labourers64 
Workmen employed in the 
public services59 
It will be noted thatrailway and tramway employés, and employésin 
the public service, differ least in their productiveness between one province 
and the other. The greatest difference in the number of children born is 
shown by the men of private means, farmers, merchants and manual and 
unskilled labourers (the latter being few in number in le Calvados). 
It is in the last-named class that the families which have been longest 
in the province may probably be found. On the other hand, employes in 
the public services or railways often move from one province to another; 
they have a specific productiveness more marked than the other classes. 
This example will suffice to bring out the actual influence of domicile and to 
indicate that productiveness depends to greater or less extent on the occupa­ 
tion acting directly and not through the medium of this influence.

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