Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

2l6Section III.M. L. March. 
II. 
The previous observations confirm, although not entirely, those which 
have often been made on the relation between fertility and social status. 
The latter being the joint product of income and of education, it is among 
the richest and most highly educated classes that the number of the children 
should be most restricted. On the other hand, fertility should be highest 
in the poorest surroundings where the manner of life is the roughest(i). 
Although this statement is, in a general way, largely true, as shown by a 
comparison of the different quarters of cities and of different classes grouped 
according to external indications of income, it is necessary to consider 
how it should be limited or qualified. There is no doubt, for example, 
that employers are, in general, wealthier than their employés, yet they have 
more children than the latter. On the other hand, employés generally 
receive higher pay than workmen, but have sensibly fewer children ; it is 
true that their social conditions are different. 
The question has been often examined ; it is important enough to war­ 
rant further examination in the light of freshly ascertained facts. 
We will borrow the fresh evidence contained in the statistics prepared 
recently in France from schedules of families filled in in 1907 by a large 
number of employés and workmen in the pay of the State and of various 
provinces and parishes(2). 
These persons have been classed according to their actual annual emolu­ 
ments, and taking into account only marriages which have lasted more than 
15 yearsthe numbers of childrenborn in every 100familieshavebeen 
calculatedand are given below :— 
AnnualLess 20 4060100160240More 
Emolumentsthan to tototototothanTotals. 
in £.20 40 60100160240400400 
Duration of Marriage,I5'25years. 
Employés... 277 241 259245223231229238237 
Workmen... 329 321 293280254234——307 
Duration of Marriage, 25yearsand more. 
Employés... 330 301 305280264264261286285 
Workmen• •• 348 363 346329305240—-—38S 
If all classes are included together the numbers agree with those obtained 
from the general census for workmen and lower officials in the public 
services. (1) See particularly the investigation made in the Great Ormond Street Hos­ 
pital, London. (Journal of the Royal Statistical Society, May, 1911, and April, 
1912.) (2) Conseil Supérieur de Statistique, Bulletins 10 and n. Statistique Générale 
de la France.—Statistique des Familles en 1906.
        

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