Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

M. L. March. Sociology and Eugenics.217 
If the numbers of children in the different wage classes are now com­ 
pared, it will be noticed that among the workmen the number of children 
diminish regularly as the wages increase. Among the employés it decreases 
till a minimum is reached in the classes earning £100—£400 a year, and 
rises again when the annual salary is more than ^400. 
To make the statement complete it must further be remarked that wages 
and salaries depend, to a large extent, on the locality in which each employé 
or workman lives. The change of fertility results from a double influence, 
of which increase of wages is only a part. 
Unfortunately, if one makes classes in which the locality, the social 
station, and the duration of marriage are the same the numbers in each 
are too small to permit valid comparisons to be made. 
Among 400 employés married for more than 15 years, working under 
administrations situated in Paris, there is a slight increase of productiveness 
as the actual salary rises ; but this group of marriages is not very homo­ 
geneous, as the employés with higher salaries are generally older men. 
Among 1,400 workmen in the city of Paris the mean number of children 
per 100 families varies as follows :— 
Annual Wages (1) ........................................... £20 £40 £60 ^80 
to to to to 
£4° £^o £80 £100 
Duration of Marriage 15-25 years ............. 240 323 295 303 
„ „ more than 25 „ ............. 328 387 368 350 
Evidence as to the effects of the environment can be obtained by con­ 
sidering throughout the whole of France the families of certain limited 
classes, the individual members of which are scattered throughout the whole 
country, particularly in country districts, e.g., the road labourers and 
“garde champêtres.” Among them the fertility is analogous to that of 
the population in which they live ; higher in regions with a high birth-rate, 
and lower in regions with a low birth-rate. 
To proceed to a corresponding investigation concerning the employés in 
prefectures and municipal offices. These have in general the fewer children 
the larger the population of the town ; this also is the fact concerning the 
population itself. But if one compares the fertility of the employés with 
that of the population, one finds that in the first case it is less variable than 
in the second. 
In 1901, 100 families, established for more than 15 years, had 199 
surviving children in Paris, 228 in towns with more than 50,000 inhabitants, 
(1) In general the declared income of persons earning £40 a year and less is 
derived from some temporary or partial employment, and is often supplemented by 
earnings derived from some additional source.
        

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