Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

234Section III.R. Michels. 
fact concerns in the same way Socialists, Nationalists, and Anti-Semites^). 
The story of the modern labour movement confirms this statement : Jaurès, 
Guesde, Lagardelle, Hervé, Bebel, Turati, Labriola, Ferri, Ramsay 
Macdonald, Troelstra, Henriette Roland Holst, Vandervelde, Adler, 
Daszynski are all very powerful and tremendous orators. On the other 
hand, the same movements show us that most of the men who, though pos­ 
sessed of the best intellectual and moral gifts, are lacking in oratorical art, 
never succeed in having a preponderant part in the guidance of the Party. 
Young men who are preparing themselves for leadership of the crowd 
know fairly well the value and the importance of oratory. The students 
of Ruskin College, a few years ago, deserted the lectures, only because 
their professors gave, according to them, too much weight to the study of 
sociology and pure logic in comparison to oratorical and debating exercises. 
We may also notice that the orator constitutes not only a psychological, 
but also a physiological type. The voice, even the anatomical structure 
of the mouth and neighbouring part are important co-efficients of the forma­ 
tion of ai public speaker ; in that way one can affirm that there is an anthro­ 
pological type; the born orator which the successor of Cesare Lombroso at 
Turin University has recently very carefully described and analized(2). 
In peoples possessing a high degree of aesthetic gifts, and living 
in old and beautiful cities where they are always surrounded by immortal 
works of art, one of the best of the factors which predispose for political 
leadership consists in the oratorial gift, accompanied by physical 
handsomeness. In Italy, for instance, the heads of the socialist parties 
must be beautiful models of mankind and the best specimens of the race 
of the country. And so they are: Enrico Ferri and Camillo Prampolini 
are very fine types of humanity. Of the 33 deputies of the socialist faction 
of the Italian Parliament in 1902 at least sixteen were above the medium 
as regards appearance. 
Certainly the personal qualities in virtue of which some individuals suc­ 
ceed in raising themselves above the mass of their party comrades in political 
life, and which must be considered as specific qualities of leaders, are of a 
complex nature, though it is not necessary that they should all and always 
be united in the same person. Firstly, energy of will which enables them 
to dominate weaker characters ; secondly, superiority of knowledge which 
compels respect; “ catonian ” depth of conviction, a force of ideas which 
often borders on fanaticism and which, from its intensity, commands the 
admiration of followers; self-confidence pushed even to the point of 
(1) J. Ernest-Charles, Les Lettrés du Parlement, in the “ Revue,” XXXIX., pag. 
361, 1901. 
(2) M. L. Patrizi, VOratore. Saggio Sperimentale, Milan, 1912, Treves.
        

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