Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

Whetham.Sociology and Eugenics.241 
ruling castes of Persia and North India. This Northern race is tall and 
long skulled; and, in its pure condition, blue eyed and fair haired. We 
find it in its greatest purity in the Scandinavian peninsulas and around the 
Dutch and English shores of the North Sea. We may recognize many of 
its characteristics, its vigour, its loyalty, its determination, its perseverance, 
its love of adventure in the tales of the Homeric heroes and in the Norse 
sagas. It has colonized North America and created the United States 
and Canada; it has descended on South Africa, and occupied Australia 
and New Zealand with its typical civilization; while the Mediterranean 
race has found a second home in the Republics of Central and Southern 
America. The ancient and modern history of Europe, if we leave out of account 
the extraneous influence of the Semitic peoples, is probably, at bottom, 
only the history of the interaction of these three races. The Mediterranean 
race has multiplied and pressed northwards, gathering itself into towns 
and cities on its way. The Northern race has always looked across the 
mountains down into the fertile plains and river valleys of Southern 
and Western Europe, tempted by the vineyards and the cornfields, the 
plunder of the towns and the adventures by the way. Doubtless, too, 
seasons of excessive cold or drought, or pressure on its eastern flank, have 
driven it afield without any more intent. At times, blending with men of 
the Alpine race, or passing through their mountain ranges and pushing 
them up the hillsides, the Northern race has reached the Mediterranean 
Sea, as a predatory, renovating, directing and conquering force; destined, 
after a time, to melt away and lose its identity amid the aboriginal native 
stock, more persistent, more numerous, and more fitted for a southern 
environment. Both in ancient Greece and ancient Rome we find distinct traces of the 
two races, the part played by the Alpine race being as yet less well 
defined. The admixture of religions, the physical characters, the mental 
bias, the trend of civilization, all reveal the same story. A conquering race 
of Northern origin, tall, fair, and often blue eyed, had descended from 
the hills, possessed itself of the land, monopolized the government, inspired 
the art and literature, and retained the aboriginal population in a condition 
of serfdom and dependence. Man, as the ancient Greek philosopher 
observed some five hundred years before the Christian era, makes his 
god9 in his own image; or, perhaps, more correctly, in the image 
of the fellow-being he admires and fears most greatly. The divine 
beings of Greece, as portrayed by their poets and artists, are tall 
fair haired, and blue or gray eyed. This alone should assure us of the 
then acknowledged supremacy of the Northern race. 
It is impossible at this distance of time to reconstruct the sequence 
in the numerical and social relations of the two races with sufficient accu­ 
racy to enable us to follow the alterations that must have taken place R
        

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