Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

242Section III.Whetham. 
Probably, at first, the two races kept distinct, each fulfilling its separate 
mission. But, as the era of conquest passed away and the two settled 
down side by side, the amount of intercourse between conquerors and 
conquered, freemen and slaves, would increase gradually, intermarriage 
become more frequent, political privilege less uneven. Then, at some one 
period, the nation might attain its greatest prosperity, when a happy balance 
had been reached between the differentiation of the two stocks—each still 
fulfilling the role for which it was best suited—and the blending process 
which, without going too far, had achieved a certain outward unity of 
purpose, and had created, possibly through material prosperity, a definite 
national spirit. But, at all times, the conquering and directing race is 
more freely exposed to the changes and chances of this mortal life. As 
leaders in warfare, adventurers on the open seas, governors and adminis­ 
trators in distant colonies and settlements, a larger relative proportion of 
the upper element, smaller in number to begin with, would leave their 
native land, never to return. The selective action of a differential birth­ 
rate, which seems to come into play in each civilization in turn, as the 
abler members assume a greater and even greater responsibility for the 
welfare of the inferior stocks of both races, and more of the ineffective 
elements are kept alive and allowed to reproduce their kind, woulH also 
assist in the work of deterioration and decay. Even without either of 
these two artificial causes, the apparent prepotency of the darker Mediter­ 
ranean race, probably due to the Mendelian dominance of their characters, 
would gradually efface the northern characteristics as soon as intermarriage 
and unchecked social intercourse were permitted throughout the nation. 
Towards the end of the classical period, a new flood of Northern 
peoples descended on the south of Europe. Teutons, Goths, and Franks 
overran the provinces of the Roman Empire in wave after wave of vigorous, 
warlike, barbaric hordes. If driven back for a time across the Danube 
and the Rhine, they returned again and again, led by hope of possessing 
the fertile plains of the south, or forced forward by the pressure of 
famine or of Hun. Finally, many areas were settled permanently, with 
or without the leave of Rome, and thus a new admixture of Northern 
blood invigorated those peoples from whom arose the earliest nations of 
modern Europe. As the civilizations of ancient Greece and Rome arose 
from the effects of the prehistoric influx of Northerners, whose presence 
can only be inferred from evidence of tradition, archaeology and anthro­ 
pology, so our modern Europe took its rise from the welter of the Dark 
Ages when this , second and historical influx had once more invigorated the 
southern races, who had lost the stimulating vigour of the first immigration, 
and had relapsed into chaos when the organising and directing genius of 
the northern elements in their population had been submerged or eliminated 
by racial admixture or adverse selection.
        

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