Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

D. C. Gini.Sociology and Eugenics.295 
The data published by the Scandinavian Society for the insurance of live 
stock refer, no doubt, to a rather select equine population; for the insured 
horses are undoubtedly better cared for in general than those not insured ; but 
in any case their mortality during development is still much less than that of 
human classes living under the best hygienic and economic conditions. 
The following data (5), though not very recent, leads us to suppose that 
a survival of 93% to 94% at one year of age, and of 80% to 85% at 20 years 
of age constitutes in the human species a maximum not easy to improve 
uponTABLE I. 
Survival of offspring among the higher classes of the human species. 
Numbers of survival of every 1,000 born at the age X. 
AgeUpper Classes (Ansell 1874)English Peers 
(Bayley & Day) 
(1861)Reigning Families of 
Europe 
1841-90 
(Sundbarg) 
X.ClergyLegal ProfessionMedical ProfessionOther Families 
I926920913916930936 588600 00862854899877 
10867855837840882— 15848839821825——•- 25785781768768—— Moreover, the data for the general population which can be extracted from 
census figures, rough approximation though they are, confirm the fact that 
with increase of age the number of survivors in the equine species diminishes 
much less rapidly than in the human species (6). 
2. The absence of statistics relating to other species of the higher animals, 
in a wild state, leaves room for two main hypotheses; either the mortality is 
during development analogous to that shewn by the human species, and the 
low mortality in the equine species is due to eugenic measures taken in the 
breeding and rearing of the domestic horse : or the mortality is during develop­ 
ment analogous to, and perhaps less than, that shewn! by the domestic horse, 
and the high mortality during development amongst the species of higher 
animals is a sad prerogative of the human race. 
In the first hypothesis the utility of Eugenics would be demonstrated and 
the Eugenist could already think of using for the improvement of the human 
race those practices which are now in vogue amongst horse-breeders; in the 
second hypothesis it would remain to be decided before everything else
        

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