Full text: Problems in eugenics

3o6Section III.D. C. Gini. 
Traces of an influence caused by the monthly variation in the number of 
marriages on the monthly variation in the number of births can also be found 
in another way. If that maximum of births which occurs in autumn should be 
found to depend solely upon the resumption of conjugal intercourse owing to 
the feasts of Christmas and New Year, it should be confined to September, or 
at the farthest to the first days of October. If we consider illegitimate births 
in those countries where we observe an autumnal maximum (Norway, Sweden, 
Denmark, Germany, Bologna and Hungary) (see Table VIII,) it falls in these 
two months ; if instead we consider the legitimate births (see Table VIII,) or 
the total births (see Table VII,) it not rarely shows itself and often markedly 
even in August (Denmark, Germany, Switzerland, Bologna, Hungary, Bulgaria, 
Servia, Croatia, Slavonia), We certainly have little reason to suppose that the 
number of eight month gestations should be so great that those conceived at 
the end of December should increase sensibly the number of those born in 
August. It rather points to the influence of marriages which are contracted 
in great numbers during November. 
We may say in conclusion that the variations which we find in the different 
months caused by climate, professions, civil and religious customs of the 
people, migration, the number of marriages, have no doubt a distinctly marked 
influence on the monthly variation of births. This influence is of such a 
nature that it is quite impossible to decide whether independently of these 
circumstances a natural maximum of conceptions should exist in one rather than 
in another season of the year owing to a greater capacity of the human organism 
for reproduction.TABLE IX. 
Frequency of multiple births according to seasons. 
of Birth,Amsterdam ^ 1850-904 8hr!5orn of M 
crrFlorence1906-909On>liveries. .2 « 
& 0 
s S 
C/2Multiple Deliveries 
per 100 bths ro 
1 EP& 
X S3 1-1 
53 ^ O 
-3 S'Multiple Deliveries 
per 100 dlvs 
.2 « 
cs O 
CL, CT. 
Cfi MT wins 
per 100 
births c 0 
jS o\ 
!£ PH CO 
December to February 
March to May 
June to August 
September to Nov. ...2 2 '28 
2'20 2'433 2'24 2-53 2'7 2 
2-354 2-37 2'28 
2'77 2-235 3'33 2-97 2-58 1716 i'SS 1-27 1 *18 
i’i67 0-88 0-86 o-ç7 0798 1‘090 
1'091 1-005 roSo 
* Data worked out by author from official statistics.

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