Full text: Problems in eugenics

Section III.D. C. Gini. 
9. Nor does the season of conception seem to haveany influence on the vitality 
of the embryo. For some countries the vitality of the embryos can be followed 
even from the early stages of their development after conception. In fact 
the yearly returns from Vienna and Budapest shew the month of delivery and 
the duration in months of gestation for miscarriages, so that it is possible to 
work back to a rough approximation of the month of conception. I say a rough 
approximation, because, on the one hand, the determination of the period of 
gestation in abortions cannot be made with certainty, and on the other, even 
when we know the month of delivery and the number of the month of gestation, 
it is impossible to work back to a determination of the month of con­ 
ception with any precision (9). In order that the calculation may not be too 
uncertain, we must group the figures according to seasons. Tables X and XI 
shew the results obtained. These, indeed, do not show any great regularity. 
Considering the legitimate births of Budapest, the minimum frequency of 
miscarriages is found amongst those conceived in summer, and considering 
Abortions and Still-born according to probable season of conception, 
Vienna, 1902-3. 
Probable season of conception 
State of offspringTotal SpringSummerAutumnWinter 
Stillborn t .... 
Born alive ... 
% Miscarriages on those born alive 
% Stillborn on those born alive ... 
% Miscarriages and Stillborn on 
those born alive...2 1187 441 
25-363 4-68 *'74 6' 423 1312 504 
27-257 4 81 
6-664 1259 480 
25-653 4-91 1-87 
6'785 1272 412 
25-162 S'06 1'64 
6'7o6 5°30 1837 
103-435 4 86 
r78 6'64 
* Data worked out by Author, from Official Statistics, 
t Embryos of a period of gestations of 8 months or more. 
the illegitimate births of Budapest, and all the births of Vienna, it is found 
amongst those conceived in spring; the maximum frequency for Vienna is 
found in winter; in Budapest for the legitimate iti is in autumn, and for the 
illegitimate in summer. 
Tables X. and XI. give also data on the frequency of the still-born 
according to seasons; Table XII. gives similar data for a greater number of

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