Full text: Problems in eugenics

D. C. Gini.Sociology and Eugenics. 
countries and Table XIII. gives more detailed data according to months. 
We generally find one high maximum of the still-born among the winter 
birrhs, sometimes equalled in the autumn period, and another maximum less 
marked in the hottest months of summer. The still-born then are seen to 
be most numerous precisely in connection with spring conceptions, in com­ 
plete contradiction to what one would expect were spring regarded as the 
original season of reproduction for the human species. 
Mortality during first month of life according to month of birth (i) 
on ico born alive in the first month. 
Month.Upper Italy.Central Italy.Lower Italy.Italy.Trieste.Rome,Florence.CagliariSassoniaBuda­ pest. 
1872-801872-801872-801872-801909-111889-19111904-05 1Q07-091905-111880-841896-1900 
JanuaryI7'4IS ’99'3I3-2876-611 '47'5575 0 
February ...16-314 28'312*18-66-911’29 ‘45-34'3 
April ................io-49-26-58-577476-66-06-34-6 
June ................7-65'36'S6-i476-94‘3r 34'3 
July....................................8-i6-86-57-24'64'99-06-i(a)965-6 August7‘56-16-46-86'o4-69'45‘°(a)9-26-4 September ...6-96-oV«6-46'i4‘iS'84'98-44-8 
October8‘27'5b- 47-35'44'55'5607*i4-8 
November ....117io-67-29-46-95’37‘i5'°574'3 
December ...14-813-6«•3n’58-i6'38-58-3574-8 
We might allow this, were it not that it is most probable that the most 
decisive factor here is not the season of conception, but the season of 
delivery, and the variation in the number of still-born in the different 
months is due to the more or less favourable external conditions rather 
than to a greater or less degree of vitality of the organisms. A proof of 
this may be found in the fact that in hot countries (such as Sicily, Spain, 
Mexico, Bengal) the summer maximum for the still-born nearly reaches, 
and sometimes exceeds, the winter maximum, while it disappears altogether 
in colder countries. 
10. The month of birth also has a decisive influence on the mortality during 
the first few days of life; but, what a priori seems peculiar, it has a contrary 
influence as regards the number of the still-born. I say a contrary influence, 
because the number of still-born is a maximum in winter in cold countries, 
and is nearly as great or even greater in summer in hot countries. Mortality 
during the first days of life appears to be greatest in the cold months of 
some countries relatively hot, and in the hot months of some countries

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