Full text: Problems in eugenics

D. C. Gini.Sociology and Eugenics. 
TABLE XVI. 
Mortality in the first year of life (i). 
Daily mean of deaths for each month making daily mean for the whole 
year—1,000. 
Paris 1905-909Berlin 1892-96 
The children who died wereThe children who died were 
Month of DeathNaturallyArtificiallyNaturallyFed onFed on 
FedFedFedAnimalSubstitutes Milkfor Milk 
123456 
January ...............12079271170688480 
February12558231046759569 March...III4888998777530 
April...........................1130877853722432 MayIOII8608658 77505 
June............................9538008841074980 
July .............................8241148104418722082 
August ...............7831838122120Ç32821 
September884124593211761680 October ...............820941942718690 
November ...............934840979574637 
December10868101066671591 (i) Data worked out by the author, The original data for Paris were taken from Anmnaire 
Statisque dela ville der Paris ; those for Berlin were taken from Westergaard, Die Lehre 
van der Mortalitat und Morbidität, Jena, Fischer, 1901. Page 305. 
mortality is greatest in summer for hot countries, and in winter for cold ones, 
and the number of still-born is affected in the same way month by month. 
We are able to say in conclusion that the variations shewn in the numbers 
both of still-born and of children expiring in the first month of life according 
to their month of birth, if they do not exclude the idea that the month of 
conception may exercise some influence on the vitality of the child, allow us 
to assert that such influence, if it exists, is totally obscured by the influence 
of the season of delivery. 
11. An interesting problem still remains to be solved : whether the month 
of birth, besides having a direct influence on mortality during the first few 
days of life, has also an indirect influence on the resisting powers of the 
organism in after life. 
Is mortality in after life independent of the season of birth ? And, if so, is 
there in after life any difference in resisting powers according to the season of 
conception ? 
Or does mortality during the first months of life possess a selective character, 
so that the stronger organisms, who have been able to survive a more 
unfavourable environment, will shew a smaller mortality, which will slowlv 
establish an equilibrium in the number of survivors ? 
Or does the unfavourable or favourable influence of the season of birth, 
besides causing immediately a greater or less mortality, make itself felt by
	        

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