Full text: Problems in eugenics

D. C. Gini.Sociology and Eugenics.3r5 
taken, the error would probably be the same for those born in different months. 
If the heads under which the dead are classified be arranged, as we took care 
to do, in such a way that the number of observations included in each of them 
is not too small, we may rightly assume that the survivals at an age X of those 
born in a month a, will be greater than in the case of those born in a month b, 
so long as the dead who are known to have been born in the month a shew 
a percentage above an age X greater than those known to have been born in a 
month b. 
Table XVII. shews that survival depends to a considerable extent upon the 
month of birth; it shews two maxima referring to the mild months of March to 
April, and September to October, and two minima referring to the months 
having extremes of temperature, December-January and June-July. The 
regularity which these figures present is too marked to be considered 
accidental. In Table XVIII. these data have been grouped according to seasons of birth, 
which has enabled us to deal with smaller limits of age without reducing 
too much the number of cases included in each. Again the results of this table 
shew a really striking regularity. At all ages, starting from three months, 
survival is a minimum for those born in winter; and at all ages, starting from 
nine, it is a maximum for those born in spring. 
With increase of age the differences do not diminish at all, but become 
greater, leading us to think that not only early but also later in life mortality 
Mortality according to season of birth (Rome 1-908-1910). 
In every 10,000 dead the number, according to month of birth, who died at an age 
Age (X) 
3 months 
699 9>> 
1299 2years 
399 599 
129 9 
209 * 
405 9 
So> 9 
6099exceeding X. 
WinterSeason of Birth, 
Spring | Summer 
862489148676 824486148352 797383708115 774281847842 75327835743i 
632866206252 585962285842 548i5868556i 
482953045123 473050934831 
421346084278 368940953775 
299433833102 202023432180Autumn 9012 8640 
8332 8011 
7669 6470 
6039 5705 
5372 53io 5201 
4895 4605 4329 3820 3122 2152

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