Full text: Problems in eugenics

322Section III.D. C. Gini. 
Influence of the Season of Birth on Survival at end of Sixth and Seventh 
Year of Life (Middlesboro’ : Born between 1898 and 1905). 
Month of BirthSurvivor Absolute numbers at Birth 
per 10006t Absolute numberSurvivors 1 year 
per 1000at end of 
nth y< 
Absolute number;ar per 1000 
January to June ... 
July to December3600 33405*9 4812320 i860559 4413040 2060597 4°3 
These results must be taken with great reserve, especially as they could 
not be foreseen, considering the opposite conclusion arrived at on our other 
lines of research as to the influence of the season of conception on the char­ 
acter of offspring. 
If, however, more extensive investigations should confirm these facts, 
it would be quite right to say that in the season when conceptions are most 
frequent in Europe the conception of persons intellectually eminent is most 
likely and that the contrary happens for the season in which conceptions are 
less frequent. 
Ewart, as quoted above, considered that he had discovered that spring, 
and in a less degree summer, exercised a favourable influence on the physical 
characters of those conceived. I here show his tables (Tables XXIII. 
and XXIV.) 
The number of observations, as far as weight and stature are concerned, 
is certainly too small, and the classification of births as regards survival of 
offspring appears to be arbitrary. Let us add that it is not at all clear how 
the data in Table XXIV. are obtained. The absolute number given for sur­ 
vivors at 11 years of age is greater than that given for the survivors at six 
years of age, and this suggests that the people considered at birth are 
not those considered at six or 11 years of age. In this case a very much 
larger number of observations would be necessary to justify us in taking 
any notice of these results. 
13. Let us briefly recapitulate the conclusions arrived at in this 
chapter. The idea that in spring there is a natural maximum of conceptions, 
owing to man’s greater fertility at that time persisting as an atavistic survival 
of an original season of reproduction, though it seemed likely to explain the 
periodicity in the births throughout the months in Europe, finds no confirma­ 
tion in the data which have been gathered from other countries. 
The frequency in flural births, in miscarriages, in stillborn, according to 
months, and mortality according to month of birth, makes it impossible to 
discover any influence caused by month of conception on the characteristics

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