Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

D. C. Gini. Sociology and Eugenics. 331 
We can well understand that the influence of artificial feeding on mor­ 
tality, according to months, should be stronge^ in the case of those who died 
in their first year than in the case of those yno died in their first month, 
owing to the less frequency of artificial feeuing in the first year of life. 
These are the percentages of deaths in Berlji, 1904 to 1905, in the first 
month and first year of life according to method of feeding : 
Children FedDied in their 
1 ,month1 st year 
Naturally . ...............21'59 4 
On animal milk (*)62'I7o-6 
On substitutes (*)................16-420'0 
TotalIOO'OIOO’O (*) Partly or entirely. 
Similarly, the influence of artificial feeding on the mortality according 
to months will be in the first days of the first month less than in the 
following. This explains why the summer maxima in infant mortality in 
Saxony and Denmark (see Table XV.) are found to be, in the first days 
of life, not so high and not so protracted (for children artificially fed 
mortality is highest in July). (See Table XVI.) 
(12)—In a stable population the number of survivors at an age x is 
equal to the number of dead of an age greater than x, therefore the expecta­ 
tion of death at an age x,—x„ is equal to the proportion of dead at an age 
x,—x,, (which we shall indicate by mx,—x,,) to the dead at an age greater 
than x, (which we shall indicate by mx,—00). In the case of Rome the 
population is certainly not stable, and the numbers mx,—x„ , mx—00, 
distinguished according to seasons of birth show, as has been mentioned, con­ 
siderable lacunae. But we may admit by way of approximation that such 
lacunae occur with an equal frequency for those born in 
different seasons, and that the hypothesis of a stable population has upon 
the expectation of death an analogous effect for those born in different 
seasons. The relations, mx,—x,, , mx,—00, concerning a given class of 
age and those born in different seasons, may therefore by way of approxima­ 
tion be considered proportional to their respective expectation of death. 
And the quotient of the proportion, mx,—x,, , mx,—00, obtained for those 
born in a certain season, to the corresponding proportion obtained 
for those born in all seasons, may be considered proportional to the 
expectation of death at x, x,, for those born in that season to the expecta­ 
tion of death for those born in all seasons.
        

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