Full text: Problems in eugenics

D. C. Gini.Sociology and Eugenics.333 
actual strength of the children, the care taken of them, and the 
frequency with which they are sent out to be nursed, and perhaps to other 
things. (a) It is often necessary to resort to artificial feeding when the mother 
is suffering from a contagious illness, or when nursing the child would seri­ 
ously compromise her health, or when her milk is either small in quantity or 
poor in quality : all these circumstances are always, or often, to be found in 
company with a constitutional weakness in the mother which is reflected to 
some extent in the organisation of the child ; therefore, if those children 
who are now naturally fed, were fed artificially they would show a lower 
mortality than those who are now fed artificially. 
(b) When artificial feeding has not been resorted to for these reasons, 
it has been adopted either through ignorance, carelessness, or want of 
affection on the part of the parents ; and it is natural that parents either 
ignorant or careless or wanting in affection for their children should take 
less care of them, and be less able to keep them from those dangers which, 
apart from the system of feeding, endanger their fragile lives. 
(c) Children sent out to be nursed, at least in France, are artificially fed 
more often than those brought up by their mothers. In 1907 of 90,000 
children sent out to be nursed in France, only 25,000 were naturally fed; 
these furnished 1,850 deaths out of a total number of death of 7,950 in the 
first year of life; while in Paris, in the five years between 1905 and 1909, 
out of all the children expiring under one year, 10,780 had been naturally 
fed and 14,684 fed in other ways. Moreover, children sent out to be nursed 
are relatively less well looked after and therefore more likely to die, quite 
apart from the system of feeding, than those brought up at home. For 
this reason alone we should expect to find mortality higher amongst the 
artificially fed. 
The influence due to these circumstances is to some extent taken into 
account in the works of Methorst and Huber. (W. Methorst. Mor­ 
talité et morbidité des nourissons â le Haye nés en 1908, en rapport avec 
la manière de les nourrir et les circonstances sociales. Bull, de l’Institut 
de Statistique. XIII. Session, 1911, Rapport N. 21; M. Huber. Mortalité 
suivant la mode d''allaitement des enfants placés en nourrice en France, Ibidem, 
Rapport, N. 17. 
The last-named compared the mortality of those naturally fed with that 
of those artificially fed in the case of children sent away to be nursed ; the 
former classed the children not only according to method of nourishment 
but also according to the way they were looked after (well, indifferently, 
and badly). But no one has yet attempted to take into account, nor is any­ 
one likely to be able to take into account, completely all the perturbing 
influences. (16)—Hrdlicka, in his physiological and medical observations among the 
Indians of South-Western United States and Northern Mexico, amon^t

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