Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

G. Sergi.Biology and Eugenics.19 
the influence of culture, as if the brain increased in volume and became en­ 
larged by a greater activity which did not take place in prehistoric times 
and in primitive populations. Here, also, the reasoning is fallacious, and 
the facts do not in the least sustain the hypothesis or the assertion. The 
Samoiedes, as everyone knows, are brachimorphic, and cannot be called 
a race which have advanced civilisation or culture in any direction. On 
the other hand, leaving out of account the mixture of heterogeneous elements, 
the Mediterranean peoples, from the Egyptians to the Greeks and Romans, 
are dolicomorphic, and no one can affirm that they have been transformed into 
brachimorphic by having been the civilisers of humanity. No anthropologist 
to-day will assert that the Scandinavians and the English, who are for the 
most part dolicomorphic, are not among the races who have attained a high 
degree of civilisation, but this has not brought about a corresponding change 
in the shape of their brain and skull. Besides, on another occasion, I 
have been able to establish that the cranial capacity is not augmented with 
cerebral activity amongst civilised peoples, for the skulls of the Vezere, 
examined by Broca, have a larger capacity than the modern Parisian skulls 
and those of other parts of France. Finally, the Mousterian skull of 
Chapel-aux-Saints presented a capacity of over 1,600 c.c., i.e., in a skull of 
the Neandertal type. 
Still more strange is the hypothesis of those who think that a change of 
this nature can be effected by a temporary isolation in the mountains or else­ 
where, and even in a short space of time as anything in the historic period 
would be. 
These and other analogous hypotheses arise from the fact of not knowing 
or not conceiving the penetration of new demographic elements in a popula­ 
tion, or the migration on a small or large scale in an inhabited region, and 
hence the slow or rapid substitution of a new ethnic type. 
In face of all these hypothetical theories, on the other hand, there exist 
facts, well and clearly established, against which nothing avails, as one fact 
is worth many theories, i.e., the persistence of the forms of the human skull 
through the ages and in all regions, and besides this another truly important 
fact which hardly any one has observed, I mean that brachimorphy and 
dolicomorphy of the skull are primitive. In Europe, where the discoveries 
of human palaeontology are relatively numerous, and the epochs attributed to 
the discovered remains are approximately correct in the chronological calcula­ 
tion of geology, the two forms are almost contemporaneous. It is clear that the 
Neander type has its dolico and its brachimorphic types in the numerous 
bones of Krapina, and that the fossil branch which bears the characters 
of recent man has its dolico and brachicephalic skulls. These two forms 
are probably two branches of one trunk, and no other view can be sustained 
than the common origin and not the transformation of one type into another. c 2

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