Full text: Problems in eugenics

446Section IV.R. Dupuy. 
(which can be found by Pachon’s oscillometer) between the maximum and 
minimum pressure in an artery. There is “ anangeoplasy,” as Brissaud 
said. Their pressure varies between 50 and io° according to their age and 
condition. The veins are either indurated or hypotonic. This fact explains the 
thromboses, varicose veins, and the bad venous circulation. The capil­ 
laries become obstructed : nutrition, tissue-respiration, and temperature are 
fatally affected owing to this condition (chilblains, trophic mischief, low 
temperature, congestion of the extremities, a habitual sense of cold, etc.). 
The blood has an abnormal composition. It is poor in lime salts (haemo­ 
philia). It shows lowering of the red cells (anaemia and systolic murmurs) 
and an increase in the white cells. The haemoglobin index is lowered. 
The hyperleucocytosis deserves attention. Can it be the explanation of 
the habitual immunity of these subjects against the infectious maladies of 
infancy? This lymphatism is accompanied by a hypertrophy of the lym­ 
phoid tissues (adenoid vegetations) which causes the disorders with which 
we are acquainted. 
The anomalies of the nervous system are many in number. They con­ 
sist, in the first place, of malformations of the skull, which give birth to a 
quantity of types—plagiocephaly and other various cephalies which have 
been well described. In the brain we find an increase or diminution of the 
total cerebral substance. The most frequent dystrophies are agenesis of 
certain lobules, thinness of the cortical substance, and shallowness of the 
fissures. On microscopic examination, one is often struck with the rare­ 
faction of the nervous cells, and of the blood vessels. Many of the children 
who have presented symptoms of hysteria or epilepsy, and who have had 
convulsions, show no trace of cerebro-spinal lesions. The glands of internal 
secretion are either absent, sclerosed, or rudimentary, or in a condition of 
adenomatous hypertrophy. Hypertrophy of the hypophysis if often accom­ 
panied by enlargement of the “ sella turcica.” Sometimes these glands 
appear to be normal, but they have not been studied from the chemical point 
of view. We note also the persistence of the thymus. 
If one passes in review the different systems of the body, one finds that 
they all present either backwardness or perversion, both in their constitution 
and function 
Digestive apfartus; Mouth'; retarded and incomplete dentition; per­ 
sistence of the milk teeth ; dental caries; defective insertion of teeth, on 
account of the faulty position of the palatine vault (arched or flattened; 
narrowed maxilla), macro and micro-dentism, Hutchinson’s teeth; thick or 
narrow lips, hare-lip; tongue enlarged, elongated, webbed, faulty insertion 
of the frenum. 
Salivary glands, increased or diminished secretion. Stomach and Intes­ 
tines ; gastric dilatation, rumination, obstruction, constipation, enteritis, 
hepatic insufficiency, with jaundiced tint.

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