Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

448Section IV.R. Dupuy. 
is a certain correspondence of clinical type, somewhat artificial it is true, 
and yet which we can label with terms such as myxoedamatous, mongolians, 
sexual inverts, fatty dystrophies, and other terms which would indefinitely 
prolong this list. 
A special bodily dystrophy, which often accompanies backwardness, is 
characterised by a juvenile senility, which deserves a special place in our 
account. It shows once again that the state of backwardness is a mixed 
phenomenon, and that it includes both retardation and perversion of the 
natural evolution. 
The psychical anomalies have specially attracted the attention of teachers 
and neurologists. They are such as parents themselves notice, and for 
which they come for advice. 
This explains to us why the term “ backward ” is applied—wrongly— 
by a number of authors, specially to indicate patients who show intellectual 
deficiency. Psychical defects, like bodily defects, consist in retardation, arrest and 
regression, but also in perversions of faculties. With these patients, judg­ 
ment, reflection, the moral sense, co-ordination of ideas, the faculty of com­ 
prehension, are either absent or defective. On the other hand, we often see 
in them a more or less marked ability for such and such a branch of intel­ 
lectual ability. 
Anomalies of will enable us to divide up these patients to a certain 
degree. We meet, in fact, the will-less, the asthenic, the apathetic types, 
which make the first category, and the unstable and the fussy people who 
cannot fix their attention, who enter into the second group. 
Anomalies of instinct also frequently occur. They may be met with in 
many different combinations which indicate a state of backwardness. We 
find, for instance, cowardice and suicide, loss of appetite or gluttony, theft 
or prodigality, egotism or exaggerated sentimentality, and various perver­ 
sions of the sexual instinct such as onanism, sadism, inversion, or exhibi­ 
tionism. The perversions of instinct produce numerous troubles which can 
be so accentuated as to come under the name of dementia. It is impossible 
to establish a line of division between backwardness, perversion, and 
insanity. In any case the backward children present numerous defects which pre­ 
vent their mixture with society : brutality towards animals, anger, envy, 
jealousy, cowardice, laziness, lying, cruelty. 
The anomalies of speech are characterised by mutism in deaf people, and 
by defects of speech—such as pidgin-language—in the patients who are 
lacking in ideation. 
Stammering shows a lack of co-ordination in the function of the 
speech organs. Defects of pronunciation are very numerous. They 
may be grouped under the head of lisping, which consists in the sub­ 
stitution, the suppression, or the faulty production of a letter in the
        

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