Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

452Section IV.R. L '^jjy[PUY' 
causes of backwardness, which we have already indicated, but we shall 
insist, in passing, on the importance of the spread of knowledge of the 
right way to bring up children in their early years. 
Effective treatment must be preceded by the removal of the adenoid 
vegetations, which damage the respiration and blood-formation, and which 
bring on hyperleucocytosis. We must also examine the eyes, and give the 
child spectacles, if he shows the least error of refraction,—which, if not 
corrected, causes backwardness. Nourishment must be sound and sufficient; 
constipation must be treated; long hours of bed and sleep are required. We 
must replace the lost minerals by glycerophosphates of lime, soda, potash, 
magnesium, iron, which will be fixed and transformed in the organism by 
means of the internal secretions. 
There are two special methods of organotherapeutic action. First a 
general action given by the thyroid gland; second, a special action given by 
each of the other glands in particular. The general action of the thyroid 
gland is undeniable. For this gland, which is the very sun of the organism, 
has a stimulative action on the whole economy, bringing into activity the 
secretion of all the glands,both external and internal. But if there is a total, 
or nearly total, lack of function of another gland than the thyroid, such as 
the hypophysis, supravenals, or the genital glands,—and this is habitually 
the case with backward children— then treatment with thyroid can no 
longer excite the secretion of an organ which is absent or destroyed. To 
get any result, we are obliged to resort to other glandular extracts taken 
from animals, and the administration of these necessitates a special 
technique. Glandular extracts must be given in small doses from a quarter 
to half a mg. daily, in all cases except for the genital extract (i mg.). 
They must be given together, or alternating frequently. The best method 
of administration is intra-muscular by means of glycerinated extract 
prepared in the cold. They are not to be taken by the mouth except when 
impossible to do otherwise. The treatment must last several months, and 
may have to be continued even for years. It ought to be given for periods 
of 20 to 30 days, and then left off for a fortnight or three weeks. With 
treatment such as we have suggested, there is no fear of accident. 
The heart must be examined frequently. As to injections, if they are 
made deeply, and if the extract has been prepared in a sound laboratory, 
they are practically painless, and I have never seen an abscess result. The 
organotherapy can be completed by injections of liver and spleen extract in 
the graver foims of malnutrition, or by injection of medullary substances. 
Cold beef marrow with meals, cod-liver oil, salt baths, rubbing with 
alcohol are all useful. General massage and gymnastics should also be 
prescribed for their stimulating and sedative action; these are a great 
assistance to treatment, and should never be neglected. We should say, by
        

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