Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

G. Sergi.Biology and Eugenics.21 
If this were not so, it would be impossible to explain how in any one 
population two types could be constantly found without the elimination of 
one of them, except, perhaps, when one of the types is found in an absolute 
minority. That is, however, not easy to prove, because we have seen that in 
the Piedmontese population, where the predominant type is the brachimorphic, 
a fraction of dolicomorphics such as one to four is found, as also in the 
people of Lombardy and Emilia. If crossing produced intermediate 
forms the two types would disappear wherever they meet, and after many 
centuries or millenniums of history and of admixture of peoples there would 
be only one form of the human skull. 
These facts show how inconsistent are the observations of Boas upon 
the descendants of the immigrants in America and the conclusions drawn 
from them, as we have seen above, and show on the other hand that no 
external influence forming part of the environment can alter the forms of 
the human skull in its fundamental characters of structure. 
In spite of this general conclusion, it can be proved that undeniable 
variations exist in the same type, that is to say, in the dolico and brachi­ 
morphic taken separately. In fact, our classification of the cranial forms 
shows this variation, and we have named varieties those forms which 
present particular variations in the type. Thus, our ellipse cannot be con­ 
founded with the ovoid and with the pentagon varieties of the dolico- 
morphic type, and so the spheroid will not be confounded with the sphenoid 
or with the platicephaloid varieties of the brachimorphic type. But these 
varieties have subordinate forms which constitute the sub-varieties, true 
forms with respect to the variety, which is the common title abstracted 
from it. Nor is this all. Besides such enduring forms which are persistent, 
as can be shown from observations from many series from neolithic to recent 
times, there exist individual variations which do not endure beyond a 
human life, because the characters are, so to say, fluctuating and not fixed, 
without, however, yielding any variation of the type to which they belong. 
Within these limits then it may be asserted that the human skull has been 
very variable, even from the earliest times, since variations such as those 
observed in neolithic and recent skulls are seen in the few fossils known to 
us, of which I have spoken. But in this connexion two other facts must 
be mentioned, that some forms or variations in type are very ancient and 
tend to disappear. (One of these is the Pelasgic ellipse, a very long form 
with parallel sides, relatively elevated, to be seen in the most ancient 
quaternary skull of Galley Hill.) The other fact is that the same type 
does not vary equally in the different human varieties. 
The objections which are usually made to the facts expounded above 
upon the typical persistence of the cranial forms and upon their variability 
within the limits of the two types cannot possess any value, because they
        

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