Full text: Problems in eugenics

30Section III.Whetham. 
permanent. This value is of the greater importance because the opportuni­ 
ties for able and ambitious workmen to rise by the economic ladder to the 
rank of employers are rapidly disappearing, at any rate, in old countries. 
The qualities necessary for a successful party leader are discussed. 
Briefly stated, they consist of oratorical ability, which is partly a psychical and 
partly a physiological and anatomical character; energy of will; superiority 
of intellect and knowledge; a depth of conviction often bordering on 
fanaticism and self-confidence, pushed even to the point of self-conceit. 
Also in many countries, as for instance Italy, physical beauty is important 
in helping a man to rise, while in rarer cases goodness of heart and dis­ 
interestedness influence the crowd by reawakening religious sentiments. 
We have seen that some elements of the crowd are seized by the selecting- 
machine of the party organisation that raises them above their companions, 
increasing automatically the social distance between them and their fol­ 
lowers. To put this automatical selecting-machine into action, certain indi­ 
viduals appear, possessing special physical and intellectual gifts that dis­ 
tinguish them spontaneously from the mass of the party. 
By W. C. D. and C. D. Whetham. 
The history of Europe presents a long series of nations successively rising 
and falling in the scale of prosperity and influence. Such persistent alterna­ 
tions suggest a common cause underlying the phenomena. All history is 
the record of change. The outward change as recorded by the chronicler 
has probably its counterpart in unnoticed variations of the internal 
biological structure of the nation. 
Most nations are composite in character. They contain two or more 
racial stocks, fulfilling different functions in the national life. It is 
probable that the proportion in which these stocks are present is not always 
constant. The variation in proportion is possibly the agent effecting the 
internal change in structure, which becomes manifest outwardly in the rise 
or decline of the nation. 
The physical characters of the population of Europe during historic 
times indicate three chief races : (i) the Mediterranean, (2) the Alpine, (3) 
the Northern. The individuals of these races possess also distinct mental 
and intellectual attributes', and the history of Europe is fundamentally the 
story of the interaction of the three races. 
It is suggested that the supreme power of Greece and Rome, each in its 
own direction, was due to the attainment of a fortunate balance between

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