Full text: Problems in eugenics

Exhibit C 57 — 60.27 
beyond the age of infancy up to five years but not in so striking a 
manner. The proportion becomes modified to 20% against 12%. As 
the influence of the birth interval on child mortality is still very 
perceptible after the tenth or later children, it may be assumed 
that it is not caused exclusively by the exhaustion of the maternal 
organism produced by the rapid sequence of births. The varying 
length of breast-feeding of the children has probably also its 
influence. Though these statistics give no data about the mode of 
infant feeding, it is nevertheless probable that in those families in 
which there are longer intervals between consecutive births each ■ 
child is suckled for a longer period. 
Birth interval and health of the offspring, after Riffel—v. d. Velden. C 58 
Influence of the length of the birth interval and the duration of C 59 
breast-feeding on infant mortality, exhibited by Weinberg. The author 
writes regarding the latter table “ in proportion to the length of the 
interval between two births, the mortality of the children following 
decreases materially, but this relation only becomes clearly apparent in 
families in which several of the children have been suckled for more 
than six months.” 
The intimate connection which exists between birth interval and C 60, 61, 62 
suckling and the great importance which suckling has under the 
favourable influence of a long birth interval is shown in Dr. Agnes 
Bluhm’s Figures C 60, C 61, and C 62—infant nutrition (breast 
feeding), number of children and infant mortality, after Dr. Marie 
Baum. “ The material is taken from the towns of Gladbach, 
Rheydt, Odenkirchen and Rheindalen, and comprises 1,495, mostly 
poor families, with 9,393 cases in which the mother survived child­ 
birth and 9,487 children born alive. In this table only 7,983 
children were counted, because the remainder had not reached the 
age of one year on the day of counting. Of these 7,983, there died 
before the completion of the1 first year 1,276, or 15.98%.” 
Number of children and child mortality : Bluhm adds :_ C 60 
“ Figure x shows in Curve A the influence of the duration of breast 
feeding ; in Curve B influence of numerical position of birth on the 
mortality of the infant. The very divergent course of the two 
curves expresses the very different influence of both these factors 
on mortality ; the latter is almost exclusively dependent upon 
the length of suckling, and shows corresponding with its increase a 
continuous and steep decline down to 1.46% from a maximum number 
of 35%. The very slight increase of the mortality of children 
suckled for six weeks compared with those who have not been breast

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