Full text: Problems in eugenics

28Exhibit C 60—61. 
fed at all is immaterial (35.55% against 35.28%). These 'figures 
prove only that breast feeding up to six weeks does not give the 
child any protection against fatal diseases. The influence of the 
birth number hardly makes itself felt up to the seventh child, only 
from the eighth onwards the power of resistance decreases con­ 
tinuously but not nearly to the same degree in which it grows with 
the length of breast-feeding (greatest difference only 21%). Curve 
B shows a materially different course from that of similar curves 
by other authors, for instance—from Geissler’s well-known curve, 
dealing with Saxon miners, in which not only the first born show up 
less favourably than the second and third born, but in which, from 
the fourth child on, the mortality increases rapidly. The economical 
condition of both groups being similar (85% of Baum’s families had 
a maximum yearly income of ^75), it is highly probable that the 
difference in the curves arises from different methods of infant 
feeding. In the Rhine provinces, as is also proved by Baum’s 
figures, the feeding is good; in Saxony, however, it is notoriously 
bad. The co-relation of infant mortality with infant feeding is very 
clearly illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, the former shows the 
influence of the length of suckling on the mortality of the children 
classed in order of birth, the latter the influence of the order of 
birth in connection with different lengthed periods of suckling. 
The extraordinarily regular course of all the nine curves in Figure 
2 and the extremely irregular course of the six top curves in Figure 3 
are very striking. From these figures it is shown that the first, 
second and third born if breast-fed for a short time only, or not at 
all, are subjected to much greater risks than the eighth, ninth, tenth 
or later children, suckled for a sufficient length of time (maximum 
difference 1 to 42). In the curve showing the children who were 
breast fed for 39 weeks (Figure 3), the influence of the high birth 
number shows only to a very small degree.” 
C 61 Number of children and capacity for breast-feeding. Concerning 
this it is remarked: “ The upper curve shows what percentage 
of children had to do without breast feeding, and the lower one 
how many enjoyed the sufficient period of 39 weeks of breast­ 
feeding. Though Baum’s figures are only intended to deal with the 
number of cases of breast feeding and not with its duration, and 
though no difference is made between exclusive and partial breast 
feeding, yet some conclusions may be drawn with regard to suckling 
capacity. In a district where breast feeding is as general as it is in 
the one examined into here, the number of women who voluntarily 
renounce every attempt at suckling must necessarily be small. The 
curve dealing with the children who had no breast feeding at all is

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