Full text: Problems in eugenics

Exhibit C i i i — 116.45 
they do not project from the husks. This genotype must, therefore, 
be fertilized artificially.’’ 
“ The lowest row (the largest cobs with the most grains) comes 
from families which have been created by the crossing of plants 
belonging to different genotypes, the relationship in which case is 
indicated by the lines which connect this row with the middle row.” 
“ The following harvests of grain were made in the year 1910 :—- 
Self-fertilization prevented (average of nine 
families) ... ... ... ... ... 53.5 hi pro ha. 
Self-fertilized (average of ten families) ... 25.3 ,, ,, ,, 
Fi hybrid (average of six families) ... ... 59.2 ,, ,, ,, 
F2 hybrid (average of seven families) ... 38.8 ,, ,, ,, 
It is well-known to what degree inbreeding is practised in reigning C 112-114 
families. We show as an example for this, Chart C 112, the 
pedigree of the Archduchess Maria de los Dolores of Tuscany, ex­ 
hibited by Ur. Stephan Kekule von Stradonitz, and Chart C 113 of 
the same exhibitor, pedigree of Ptolemáus X. Soter II. (Lathros), 
and Chart C 114, pedigree of the celebrated Cleopatra. Though with 
Ptolemáus X. the effect of sexual reproduction in bringing about new 
combinations of hereditary units was very limited, since the couple. 
Ptolemáus V. Epiphanes and Cleopatra Syra having produced all the 
germ cells from which he developed, he appears, nevertheless, to have 
been a perfectly normal being. In his granddaughter Cleopatra 
certainly much “ extraneous blood ” circulated. 
Even where there is no high degree of inbreeding, the individuals C 115 
of a people are much more closely related to each other than is 
generally assumed. Table C 115, “theoretical number of ancestors.” 
shows that, assuming the duration of one generation to be 35 years, 
and that no marriages between relations have taken place, the number 
of the ancestors of a man living now would have been eighteen 
billions in the year o a.d. In reality the germanic race, wandering- 
west, probably only numbered hundreds of thousands. This pheno­ 
menon of “ ancestral loss,” as Ottokar Lorenz calls it (that the 
number of real ancestors is much smaller than those theoretically pos­ 
sible), can be illustrated in the pedigrees of the reigning houses. 
We have in Table C 116 an analysis of pedigree of Emperor c 116 
William II., after Ottakor Lorenz. Investigations show that twelve 
generations back the real number of his ancestors amounts to only 
one-eighth of the possible figure. Only 275 persons have actually 
been found because in the older lines, the bourgeois element, of which 
no record can be found, has had a very large share.

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