Full text: Problems in eugenics

46Exhibit C 117 —123. 
C 117 
C 118 
C 123Very little knowledge exists concerning the effect of the crossing 
of races in man. On the whole it appears not to be favourable, 
if it is a question of crossing of races from far apart, even in purely 
physical respects. An example of harmful influence is given in 
v. d. Velden’s Table C 117—“Fertility and Health in relation to 
the crossings of races.” NEOMALTHUSIANISM. 
122 The next and the greatest concern of race-hygiene—much greater 
than the relative increase of inferiority—is, to-day, neomalthusianism, 
the intentional restriction of the number of births in varying degrees 
up to complete unproductiveness. Though conscious regulation of 
the production of children is absolutely necessary, it becomes fatal 
to a nation if under no control but the egotism of the individual. For 
its permanent prosperity a nation requires, in order merely to hold 
its own, a sufficient number of “ hands ” and a sufficient number of 
“ heads ” to guide those “ hands.” We referred to this when men­ 
tion was made of sterility as a phenomenon of degeneration, but this 
cause of sterility during the last decades only takes a second place 
compared to deliberate intention. The wealthy and higher social 
classes were first attacked by neomalthusianism. Their progeny is 
becoming more and more utterly insufficient, so that under our present 
social conditions, particularly which give mind and talent better open­ 
ings, and thereby more and more take out of the mass of the people 
the better elements, make the strongest demand for them and use them 
up, the danger of an increasing deterioration of the average quality 
of its progeny grows greater and greater. The baneful influence of 
wealth on fertility is shown by several tables. Figure C 118 “ Fer- 
tility and Wealth,” after Goldstein and Tallquist, gives the condition 
in the French Departments; Figure C 119, “ Number of Children and 
Wealth,” after Bertillon, for the Arrondissements of Paris; Figure 
C 120, “ Fertility and Wealth,” after Mombert, for Munich, 1901, 
Table C 121, “The Number of Children in Families of Different 
Classes in Denmark, 1901,” after Westergaard; Table C 122, “ Fer- 
tility of Marriages, Occupation, and Wealth for Copenhagen, and 
Dutch Conditions,” after Rubin, Westergaard, and Verrijn Stuart. 
The worst condition with regard to the fertility prevails among 
those with the highest mental endowment. Evidence of this is given 
in Figure C 123, “Insufficient Fertility of the Highly Endowed in 
Holland,” after J. R. Steinmetz. It shows the rapidity with which 
the number of children decreases. In order to estimate the signifi-

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