Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

V. G. Ruggeri. Biology and Eugenics.45 
feature except the character of the hair(i). This separation, says the same 
Bean, confirms the second law of Mendel, and not only for the hair, but for 
the physiognomy, for the shape of the ear, for the shape of the nose, for 
the length of the extremities. All these characters exist as unities separately 
hereditary, character-unities. But it also follows that several of these char­ 
acters agree amongst each other so that their totality can be also inherited 
as a character-unity. 
In other words, the independence of the characters, what is called the 
third law of Mendel, is verified, that is to say, when the parents, instead 
of differing by a single character (whence the descendants are mono-hybrids), 
differ by two or more characters (whence these are di-hybrids or poly- 
hybrids, according to the terminology of De Vries), then the single antagon­ 
istic pairs of characters act independently one of the other, and the same 
holds good for those antagonistic pairs which are formed of more reunited 
characters, as was said above, which Bateson has called “ compound 
allelomorphs. ” 
It can be imagined what varieties of results take place in the poly­ 
hybrids of the Philippinos, granted that the dominant or subject character 
can appear according to the known proportions. Let us suppose that it is a 
question of tri-hybrids : indicating the three dominant characters by the 
three capital letters and the three corresponding recessive characters by the 
respective small letters we get for F, with the exception of the eventual 
case (verified in certain experiments of Bateson) of “ incompatibility of 
character 27 ABC : 9 a B C: 9 ABc: 9 A b C: 3 Abe: 3 aBc: 
3 abC: iabc. 
But besides that we can also have the fusion of antagonistic characters(2). 
Bean, in fact, confirms the view that wavy hair appears as the product of 
crossings between the curly-haired and the smooth-haired(3), while, as is 
well known, in other regions, e.g., in many South Americans, it is an 
autonomous character. What is still stranger is the dominance of the smooth 
face over the hairy face, which would tend to show that the deficiency in 
the hair-bearing structures, which Morselli advances as a progressive and 
recent character, is perhaps a more ancient mutation than the other, shown 
by an arrest of development, like the featherless neck of certain fowl of 
which Cuenot speaks. 
It is extraordinary how De Quatrefages, with a naturalist’s true intuition, 
should have seen all this previous to the re-affirmation of Mendel’s dis­ 
coveries, of which, like his contemporaries, he was certainly ignorant. And in 
order that the merit should not be attributed to other anthropologists (which 
can result from ignorance or servility, if it has not already done so), I wish 
to refer in extenso to what he wrote almost a quarter of a century ago— 
(1) R. Bennett Bean, Types of Negrito hi the Philippine Islands. American Anthro­ 
pologist, 1910, p. 234. 
(2) V. Haecker, Op. cit. p. 296. 
(3) R. Bennett Bean, Philippine Types. American Anthropologist, 1910, n. 3, p. 381.
        

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