Full text: papers communicated to the first International Eugenics Congress held at the University of London, July 24th to 30th, 1912

V. G. Ruggeri.Biology and Eugenics.47 
considered as one of the factors in the formation of new species : for existing 
species are characterised precisely by the impossibility of crossing them, or 
at least, by the sterility of their hybrids, depending upon the different con­ 
stitution of the gametes ”(i). 
We are convinced that anthropology must be put upon the main path 
of zoology : in fact, we have never thought that man is a being apart; hence 
there is no confusion, and above all we are not obliged to take in hand, 
correct, or make good the chaos which would thus be introduced into our 
science—a chaos which is not capable of any amendment but only of 
destruction. The zoological guide does not oblige us to believe that the 
brachycephalic of the Alps is a hybrid of two species (Sergi). 
Besides Mendelian heredity and fusion we can have the so-called 
“ Mosaic,” which may be probably interpreted as something intermediate 
between the two, i.e., an incomplete fusion : all the three cases are found 
in crossings between the Negrito and Europeans. But it is, above all, to 
the so-called laws of dominance that I have wished to call attention, because 
of their great importance. In fact, it is not rash to foresee that these laws 
of dominance, when they become known in all their characters and for all 
races, will give some positive foundation (to add to the other data) for 
philogenetic inductions. We have seen from the first that the dominant 
characters which are shown by crossing mice of different races are almost all, 
except one, the same characters which the ancestral form of Mus musculus 
presents, from which the other varieties are derived. 
Thus, we may conclude, with much probability also in the case of man, 
that the dominant characters are likewise the original ones, and the brunette 
(not to be confounded with the negro with woolly hair) appears as an 
ancestral type within the limits of our experience. 
THE INHERITANCE OF FECUNDITY. 
By Raymond Pearl, Ph.D., 
Biologist of the Maine Experiment Station, Orono, Maine, U.S.A.. 
A thorough and searching investigation of two great biological problems 
is a necessary pre-requisite to any substantial advance of the science of 
eugenics. These problems are :— 
i. The mode of inheritance of human characters and traits of all kinds. 
2. The physiology of reproduction in man, particularly with reference to 
human fecundity and fertility. 
(i) E. Giglio-Tos, Les problèmes de la vie. Part IV. La variation et Porigine des espèces. 
Cagliari, 1910, p. 214.
        

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